Date of publication: 2017-08-30 08:02
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All of the attributes stated above all belong to the Ð²Ð‚?IÐ²Ð‚™. It is self-evident that thinking, doubting, willing and understanding do. Imagination does too, as even though the things that are imagined are not real, the power of imagination is real and exists as part of thinking. The same applies to sensory perception they may perceive false things but that power of perception must be true and also exists as a part of the Ð²Ð‚?IÐ²Ð‚™. They can be arranged into three categories: those that judge (doubting, understanding, willing, affirms), those that imagine and those that perceive.
The Meditator then moves on to ask how he comes to know of this "I." The senses, as we have seen, cannot be trusted. Similarly, he concludes, he cannot trust the imagination. The imagination can conjure up ideas of all sorts of things that are not real, so it cannot be the guide to knowing his own essence. Still, the Meditator remains puzzled. If, as he has concluded, he is a thinking thing, why is it that he has such a distinct grasp of what his body is and has such a difficult time identifying what is this "I" that thinks? In order to understand this difficulty he considers how we come to know of a piece of wax just taken from a honeycomb: through the senses or by some other means?
Both Descartes and Berkeley had a thesis of mediate perception. These theses however, were not the same. The difference, you see, is in how they perceive physical objects. Descartes develops
Through the Meditation, Descartes tries to say that I know not only that the mind exists, but also I know more about the mind than about the world outside the mind. This argument would only hold if every thought, perception and imagination told me something new about the mind. But all these thoughts tell me only one and the same thing: that I exist, and that I am a thing that thinks.
The Meditator tries to clarify precisely what this "I" is, this "thing that thinks." He concludes that he is not only something that thinks, understands, and wills, but is also something that imagines and senses. After all, he may be dreaming or deceived by an evil demon, but he can still imagine things and he still seems to hear and see things. His sensory perceptions may not be veridical, but they are certainly a part of the same mind that thinks.
When one reads the second meditation Descartes does sound like someone who is a bit crazy and perhaps someone who had too much time in his hands because to doubt even existence is for me at first just down right absurd and many of us would have the same feeling on this matter maybe because of how we were brought up but it is exactly this kind of thinking that Descartes was trying to destroy he wants everybody to think for themselves and not just accept opinions as truths because if we just accept the texts of the ancient and the opinions of everybody as truths then how can we arrive at certain knowledge if those texts and opinions happen to be false he wants us to discover the truths for ourselves and perhaps he wanted people not to be lazy.
Descartes reasons that as he is debating complex ideas in his head and doubting his existence in the world, he has to be certain. The fact that he is having these thoughts proves that he exists. Descartes then states with certainty I am, I exist (Second Meditation 75). This is the first accurate idea that Descartes is confident about.