Date of publication: 2017-09-06 05:38
The smarter our tools are, the more capable they will be of meeting our needs. In the previous hypothetical example, we stated that the user designated certain areas of the web page as the template, or as the headlines, or other parts of the site. User designation of these areas is effective, but crude. More sophisticated tools could employ pattern recognition to identify these elements independent of the user. Such a feature would be even more useful in analyzing sites that have already been developed (after-the-fact analyses), because it would eliminate the need to alter the code.
The objective of the project is to develop a Public Sector Conceptual Framework which is applicable to the preparation and presentation of general purpose financial reports of public sector entities. General purpose financial reports include, but are not necessarily limited to, financial statements and notes thereto.
The framework outlined in this paper helps to simultaneously define and expand the possibilities for tool development, not only for cognitive disabilities, but for all disabilities. However, since the focus of this paper is tools for cognitive disabilities, we will develop the idea a bit further with an example.
One of the areas most often overlooked in web accessibility tool development is that of the unit of analysis. We have identified six potential units of analysis:
One of the difficulties that arises when discussing ways to make web content accessible to people with cognitive disabilities is that it is often unclear who should be responsible for enacting which changes. The main realms of responsibility include:
Because our hypothetical authoring tool is aware of which areas of the web page are the template and which areas are the main content (we would have defined this previously), we will be able to identify which errors occur in which parts of the web pages. When we activate the tool, it gives us the choice of a summary report or an interactive wizard interface. We choose the interactive wizard. The tool first looks at the template.
To the extent possible, cognitive disabilities must be demystified before any progress can be made toward developing tools that help make content accessible to people with cognitive disabilities. Toward this end, this paper outlines a conceptual framework within which tool designers can approach the challenge of identifying and repairing cognitive disability accessibility barriers. This framework consists of:
Though it would be nice to flesh out every possible type of algorithm for every aspect of the framework, such an endeavor would take us well beyond the scope of this paper and, quite frankly, beyond the scope of our current comprehension of cognitive disability accessibility. The framework helps to demystify some of the conceptual issues of tool development for cognitive disabilities, but, alas, it does not provide automatic or easy answers in terms of translating those concepts into automatable processes. Indeed, some of the concepts in the framework may never be fully automatable, and will likely always require human interpretation and intervention, both on the authoring end and on the evaluation end.
Analysis of the template. As it turns out, the same template is used on each of the three pages we need to access in order to obtain the weather forecast. This is a good thing. The tool commends us for the consistency of maintaining the same template.
Most tools evaluate web pages, either one at a time, or all throughout the site. Even the tools that produce reports for an entire web site use individual web pages as the unit of analysis. Often the reports give a list of errors and provide the user with the URI of the pages on which the errors are found. Though useful in many ways, page-level analyses are not as efficient or as useful as other types based on other units of analysis.
For our example, we have chosen one part of each of the framework elements to explore in some detail. The framework elements we have chosen are as follows:
Several accessibility tools can check for obvious accessibility problems, such as images missing alt text, data tables missing headers, forms missing labels, and so on. All of these issues are important to accessibility. However, the focus of the vast majority of the algorithms in these tools is on only one type of disability: blindness. Very few of the algorithms focus on other types of disabilities. The most neglected category of disability is that of cognitive disabilities.
The Entity Framework enables you to query a conceptual model. To query the conceptual model using the latest version of the Entity Framework, see Querying Data.